classical period

Here, too, we may or may not know who, if anyone, was the lead designer or if we can appropriately identify them under this title.  Nor may it be appropriate to isolate any one individual.  When no specific individual is identified, we take this opportunity to explore communities and civilizations that interpreted philosophical, cultural, and spiritual beliefs through landscape modifications, including the building of ancient cities.  For these locations, students may research a specific site within these settings.

In our text, we begin to see the names of property owners, who could have tremendous influence on final designs or may even be identified as designers themselves.

key places of interest
Polis & Acropolis
Hippodamian Planning
Temples, Theaters, & Cemeteries
Greek Empire
Athens
Delphi
Epidaurus
Miletus
Empire: Hellenistic & Roman Urbanism
Curetes Street: Ephesus, Turkey
Lion Harbor: Miletus, Turkey
Pergamum, Turkey
Florentia, Italy
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia: Praeneste, Italy
Ephesus, Turkey
Pompeii, Italy
Herculaneum, Italy
Urban Gardens
House of the Little Fountain: Pompeii, Italy
House of Pansa: Pompeii, Italy
House of Vettii: Pompeii, Italy
House of Octavius Quarto: Pompeii, Italy
Italy's Ancient Villas & Grottos
Villa Marittima
Villa Suburbana
Villa Urbana
The Grotto of Tiberius: Sperlonga, Italy
Hadrian's Villa: Tivoli, Italy